By I. Marcus. Caldwell College. 2019.
The focus of this chapter is not to engage the debate regarding normalcy generic prednisone 10mg with mastercard, but to provide a clear conceptualization of the paraphilias cheap prednisone 20mg on-line, a review of etiological theories proven prednisone 5mg, and an articulation of current treatments proven prednisone 40mg. A core assumption throughout the chapter is that the most reasoned understanding of the paraphilias is one that integrates both biological and psychological perspective. The minimum time duration for a fantasy, urge, or behavior to qualify as a dis- order is 6 months. Paraphilic fantasies and urges may vary in fre- quency and intensity over time, often beginning in childhood or adolescence and intensifying in adulthood. Acute episodes may occur and, in some individuals, resolve quickly with treatment. The paraphilic fantasy or behavior may be obli- gatory, or required for arousal, or nonobligatory, where an individual experiences arousal in response to other erotic stimuli as well. It may be nonobligatory in early life but become increasingly obligatory over time or with increased engage- ment with the pattern. Individuals with one paraphilia may be prone to develop others, and multiple paraphilias in one individual appear to occur with high frequency (6,7). The present diagnostic categorizing system, in which paraphilias are dened according to the specic deviant focus, implies that each paraphilia rep- resents a distinct disease process. Difculties stemming from this conceptualiz- ation are apparent in the common scenario of multiple paraphilias co-occurring in one individual, where the multiple paraphilia conceptualization suggests that each paraphilic interest in the individual represents a distinct pathological phenomenon. No clear evidence exists for such an assertion and, further, it is more clinically useful to conceptualize the scenario as multiple paraphilic vari- ations reecting a shared underlying phenomenon. Lehne and Money proposed the term multiplex paraphilia, noting variations of paraphilic content expressed over an individuals life span, but all inuenced by a common underlying decit or etiological process (7,8). Prevalence There is little reliable data regarding the prevalence of the paraphilias. As indi- viduals with paraphilias rarely present in mental health or medical facilities, it is assumed that the prevalence in the general population is higher than estimates based on clinical samples. In contrast, a 10-year review of the records from the authors specialty clinic showed a 5. Again, it is important to note that patient samples are not representative of the general population and patient samples in specialty clinics are not representative of general medical or psychiatric samples. Much of the prevalence data for the offending paraphilias have been drawn from sexual offender arrest or treatment records. Such records often do not distinguish between paraphilic and nonparaphilic offenders. As a result, the prevalence of specic paraphilias among sex offenders or in the general popu- lation is unknown and data gathered from arrest records likely under-reect the incidence of paraphilias (10). Exceptions have been reported, including single case reports of female genital exhibitionism and female fetishism (1113). Gosink reported that autoerotic deaths occur differentially in males and females at a ratio of more than 50:1. It is not known to what extent this gure reects gender differences in the prevalence of other paraphilias. Another recent report described multiple paraphilias in a female, including fetishistic arousal to men in diapers as well as sexual sadism characterized by extreme preoccupation with sexual torture and a collection of detailed plans to murder young males to whom she was sexually attracted (16). Therefore, the relative occurrence of pedophilia in male and female sex offenders is not known. A 1991 review by Wakeeld and Underwager revealed that, among female sex offenders who were assessed for sexual deviancy, most were determined to not have pedophilia, suggesting that factors other than sexual gratication often motivate the behavior (19). Some gender differences in clinical character- istics between males and females with pedophilia have been suggested. Most sig- nicantly, while history of sexual victimization is reported with some frequency by both males and females with pedophilia, the higher frequency in females suggests that history of sexual abuse may have greater etiological signicance in the development of pedophilia in females than in males (F. In summary, while the literature strongly supports the assumption that the paraphilias occur predominantly in males, there are increasing reports of paraphilias in females. The occurrence of paraphilias in females may be a less rare clinical phenomenon than previously assumed. Comorbidity There is considerable co-occurrence of other paraphilias in patients diagnosed with one (7,2024). A recent study of men with pedophilia showed the following comorbidity patterns with additional paraphilias: voyeurism 13. Kafka and Prentky conducted a study of lifetime comorbid nonsexual diag- noses in males with paraphilias and paraphilia-related disorders (26). Almost 72% had a lifetime prevalence of a mood disorder, with dysthymic disorder occurring most frequently. It is known that many individuals with fetishistic cross-dressing have comorbid psychiatric disorders. A sample of transvestites who sought psychiatric evaluation in a sexual behaviors clinic were found to have high rates of mood or substance abuse disorders (28). This was consistent with a previous study wherein 80% of gender dysphoric transvestites qualied for a concurrent Axis I diagnosis, generally an affective disorder (29). A recent study of comorbidity between alcoholism and specic paraphilias found that. A recent study of the co-occurrence of personality disorders in sex offen- ders revealed that 72% of the sample had at least one personality disorder (31). All subjects had impulse control disorder and a paraphilia, but it is not clear how many of the offenders in the study had a diagnosis of pedophilia or other specic paraphilias. Contrary to commonly held assumptions, there was a relatively low incidence23%of antisocial personality disorder. It has been proposed that they may be fundamentally related through shared underlying mechanisms (32). Voyeurism and exhibitionism involve visual processing of sexual stimuli from a distance, without direct physical contact with a partner, whereas in frotteurism physical contact is made. The voyeur looks in order to receive an alluring sexual image, the exhibitionist shows in order to transmit a sexual invitation, and the frotteur touches in order to feel intimate (33). Voyeurism The paraphilic focus in voyeurism is sexual fantasies, urges, or behaviors invol- ving observing unsuspecting persons, usually unclothed and/or engaged in sexual activity. Federoff has described the requirement aspect of voyeurism and the other paraphilias as the central feature distinguishing them from nonpar- aphilic equivalents (34). It is not simply the act of watching a women naked, undressing, or engaging in sex that arouses the paraphilic voyeur; the victims lack of suspicion that she is being observed and the risk of being discovered are central to the voyeurs arousal. His ritual often is accompanied by masturbation during or after the voyeuristic episode. They include pictophilia, or dependence on viewing pornography for arousal, and troilism, or dependence for arousal on observing ones partner on hire or loan to a third party while engaged in sexual activity. The internet provides increasing opportunities for such paraphilia variants to thrive. Exhibitionism In exhibitionism, the individual displays his genitals to an unsuspecting person. A response of indifference may fuel a conpulsion to repeat the behavior until the craving is satised. Exhibitionism must be distinguished from nudist interests, such as enjoy- ment of vacationing at nude beaches and resorts, and from prank behaviors, such as ashing and mooning.
Gestational Diabetes | 9 Carbohydrates Carbohydrate foods are broken down into glucose and used by the body for energy cheap 20mg prednisone overnight delivery. To help manage your blood glucose levels discount 5mg prednisone, it is important to spread your carbohydrate foods over 3 small meals and 2-3 snacks each day prednisone 5 mg without a prescription. In some women discount 20 mg prednisone otc, blood glucose levels continue to be high, even with healthy eating and regular activity. If this happens to you, it is important not to cut back on carbohydrates as the baby requires carbohydrate as its main energy source. Some womens bodies require help to manage blood glucose levels and insulin injections may be needed. Limit the amount of fat you eat, particularly saturated fats by selecting lean meats, skinless chicken and low-fat dairy foods. If eaten in large amounts, all fats can cause extra weight gain which can further increase insulin resistance. Protein Include two to three small serves of protein each day as protein is important for the maintenance of the body and growth of your baby. Protein foods include lean meat, skinless chicken, fsh, eggs and reduced fat cheese. Gestational Diabetes | 11 The plate model below shows a healthy meal Half your plate should include vegetables or salad. The following sweeteners may be used in small amounts: Aspartame (951)* Sucralose (955)* Acesulphame Potassium (950)* *look for these numbers on the food label ingredients list What can I drink? Drinks such as cordial, juice and soft drink are high in energy and sugar so a better choice is to drink water, plain mineral water or soda water try it with a fresh lemon or lime for something different. Alcohol The Australian guidelines recommend that for women who are pregnant, planning a pregnancy or breastfeeding, avoiding alcohol is the safest option. There is strong evidence that heavy alcohol intake harms the baby, though the effects of low to moderate intake are less clear. Walking is a great way to be physically active, without even noticing you are exercising. Here are some tips on how you can incorporate more walking into your life: start a walking group with family or friends walk instead of driving to the local shops take the stairs instead of the lift stand and move while on the phone gardening For women with gestational diabetes, moderate intensity physical activity can help to manage blood glucose levels. If there are no specifc obstetric or medical conditions, you should be able to safely exercise during pregnancy. Regular activities such as walking or swimming help to: reduce insulin resistance keep you ft prepare for the birth of your baby manage your blood glucose levels If you are feeling tired and are less active, your blood glucose levels will be higher. Remember, before starting or continuing any form of physical activity, always check with your doctor. Gaining too much weight during pregnancy will make it harder to manage your diabetes and the birth. During pregnancy the expected blood glucose range is lower than for people with diabetes who are not pregnant. Testing your own blood glucose levels will help you to: better understand the effect of food and lifestyle on blood glucose levels know when to seek advice from your health professionals develop confdence in managing your diabetes Generally targets are 4. Your doctor or diabetes educator will advise you what blood glucose levels to aim for. Blood Glucose Meters (the equipment used to test your blood glucose levels) are available from your local National Diabetes Service Scheme Agents (listed on page 25), pharmacies or your diabetes educator. Self blood glucose testing involves a fnger prick using a fnger pricking device to obtain a small drop of blood to test in your blood glucose meter. Recording your blood glucose levels in a record book or sheet is important so you can discuss the results with your diabetes team at each appointment. If your blood glucose levels cannot be managed by healthy eating and physical activity alone, your doctor may suggest medication. Insulin treatment may be needed to bring the blood glucose levels into the target range. Tablets are not widely used in the treatment of gestational diabetes as their effectiveness and safety are still being assessed. If insulin is required, your diabetes educator or doctor will demonstrate how to use the insulin device and where to inject the insulin. The injected insulin will help to lower your blood glucose level to within a range that is best for your babys growth and development. It is common for the insulin dose to be increased regularly as the insulin resistance from the placental hormones increases until close to the birth. Your diabetes team will regularly review your blood glucose levels and advise you of the correct insulin doses to take. If you are having insulin injections, it is possible for blood glucose levels to go a little low, although this is not common. A low blood glucose level is called hypoglycaemia or a hypo and is treated by having a drink or food containing quick acting glucose. Within a few minutes of having something sugary, your blood glucose level should return to normal. You should perform an extra blood test to check that your blood glucose levels have returned to normal. If diabetes has been well managed and there are no other problems, most women go to full term and give birth naturally. If baby grows too large (macrosomic) or any other concerns about the pregnancy arise, your pregnancy team may suggest inducing the baby one or two weeks early. If an earlier birth is required the labour is usually induced after using a medication that prepares the cervix for delivery. Caesarean section As with all pregnant women, there is a possibility that you may need a caesarean birth. Sometimes a caesarean may be required if the baby is too large or if there are other obstetric concerns such as low placenta, breech presentation or previous caesarean delivery. Its a good idea to be informed about caesarean births so that if the need arises you are well prepared. Insulin/Glucose infusion (drip) Women may need an insulin infusion to control the blood glucose levels during labour, or when having a caesarean. This is more likely in women who have needed treatment with high doses of insulin during the pregnancy. Gestational Diabetes | 19 After the birth Gestational Diabetes will not lead to your baby being born with diabetes Your baby will be monitored carefully for the frst 24-48 hours (heart rate, colour, breathing, blood glucose levels). The midwives will perform blood glucose tests (using heel pricks) on your baby to make sure its blood glucose levels are not too low. Benefts of breastfeeding Breastfeeding soon after the birth, then every four hours, helps to maintain your babys glucose levels. Breastfeeding has also been shown to pass on the mothers immunity to the baby and help your weight control. For women who required insulin Insulin will usually be stopped after your baby is born. Your health team will advise you how often to monitor your blood glucose to see whether the levels have returned to normal (generally 4.