By V. Mannig. Mesa State College. 2019.
Higher levels of mental health were psychometric testing of instruments to measure the correlated with higher self-care agency scores generic sildigra 25 mg line. Instruments are currently These ﬁndings veriﬁed the conditioning inﬂuence available to measure the self-care agency of adoles- of health state on the self-care agency of patients’ cent populations (Denyes discount 50mg sildigra overnight delivery, 1982) sildigra 25 mg with visa, adult populations experience variations in physical and mental health discount sildigra 100 mg visa. The availability The conditioning inﬂuence of other basic fac- of valid and reliable measures of self-care agency tors on the self-care abilities of clinical and non- has been vital to the advancement of the theoretical clinical populations has been the focus of inquiry component of self-care nursing science. Intervention studies therapeutic self-care demand, self-care agency, and designed to enhance self-care performance are also the self-care actions of individuals with chronic ob- under way. Health state was found to gram of research focused on the self-care of cancer offer signiﬁcant explanation of variations in the patients who were receiving chemotherapy or radi- self-care actions of this population. Her early descriptive studies clariﬁed universal, developmental, and health deviation self- the health-deviation self-care requisites of this pop- care requisites, Riley (1996) developed a tool to ulation and documented the therapeutic self-care measure the performance and frequency of the self- demand (Dodd, 1982, 1984). More recent work de- care actions of patients with chronic obstructive scribed speciﬁc self-care behaviors initiated by pa- lung disease. This tool has the potential to be useful tients receiving these therapies and led to the as an outcome measure in future intervention stud- identiﬁcation of a patient proﬁle of self-care that ies designed to enhance the self-care abilities of this can be used in practice to target speciﬁc patient population. Dodd’s intervention studies Nursing Theory as the basis for her program of re- demonstrated that with targeted information, search with children. She has developed the Child patients can learn more about their treatment and and Adolescent Self-Care Practice questionnaire, can perform more effective self-care behaviors which can be used to assess the self-care perfor- (Dodd, 1997). Children with higher Through her 20-year program of descriptive, pre- self-concept scores were found to perform more dictive, and intervention studies based on self-care self-care activities than children with low self- theory, Dodd’s research has demonstrated how to concept scores (Mosher & Moore, 1998). Investigators have used Orem’s theory to iden- The utility of the Self-Care Deﬁcit Nursing Theory tify the self-care requisites and self-care capabilities beyond our national borders can be explained in of patients across a broad range of health devia- tions. Based on the theory, Utz and Ramos (1993) The utility of the Self-Care Deﬁcit Nursing have conducted a sequence of studies to explore Theory beyond our national borders can and describe the self-care needs of people with be explained in part by the fact that symptomatic mitral valve prolapse. The self-care Orem’s intention was to develop a general capabilities and the self-care needs (requisites) of theory of nursing that would be useful in persons with rheumatoid arthritis have also been describing and explaining universal nursing described. Duration of illness velop a general theory of nursing that would be (health state) and educational level were found to useful in describing and explaining universal nurs- be related to self-care agency (Ailinger & Dear, ing knowledge. Aish (1993) tested the effect of an Orem- Western civilizations may be further explained by based nursing intervention on the nutritional the inclusion of culture as a primary inﬂuence on self-care of myocardial infarction patients. Professor and the activities of self-care are learned according Georges Evers at the Catholic University of Leuven to the beliefs and practices that characterize the in Belgium has developed an extensive program of cultural way of life of the group to which the indi- research based on the theory. The individual ﬁrst descriptive and explanatory studies of the self-care learns about cultural standards within the family. The theory provides a means to study the types of Orem’s theory is also being applied by Jaarsma self-care needs identiﬁed by speciﬁc cultural groups and colleagues as a basis for an ongoing program of and the acceptable cultural self-care practices to research with cardiac patients in the Netherlands. With a population of patients promotion self-care within Orem’s Self-Care with advanced heart failure, Jaarsma, Halfens, Deﬁcit Nursing Theory and went on to explore Senten, Saad, and Dracup (1998) identiﬁed the through a descriptive study the self-care actions therapeutic self-care demand of this population performed by healthy middle-aged women to pro- and then developed a supportive-educative pro- mote well-being. The women studied were able to gram designed to enhance their self-care abilities. The jority of which were related to the universal self- book Nursing: Concepts of Practice (Orem, 1985) care requisites (Hartweg, 1993). The interview has been translated into Dutch, French, German, guide used with this American population has Italian, Spanish, and Japanese. Whetstone (1987) the Self-Care Deﬁcit Nursing Theory in nursing sit- and Whetstone and Hansson (1989) also con- uations in Australia, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, ducted cross-cultural comparative studies using Germany, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, self-care concepts. They compared the meanings Sweden, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, Hong of self-care among Americans, German, and Kong, Taiwan, Thailand, Turkey, Canada, Mexico, Swedish populations. In addition to the cross-cultural comparative re- Moreover, over the past 15 years, the author has search, the Self-Care Deﬁcit Nursing Theory is been privileged to be a part of an international net- being applied in studies with speciﬁc cultural work of nurse scholars and scientists focused on the groups. In an ethnographic study based on con- development of disciplinary knowledge derived cepts within Orem’s theory, Villarruel (1995) ex- from the Self-Care Deﬁcit Nursing Theory. Our plored the cultural meanings, expressions, self-care, collaborative work began in 1983 when the author and dependent care actions related to pain with a was invited as a consultant to the faculty of health Mexican American population and commented on sciences at the University of Maastricht in the the theory’s use with this population. Dashiff Netherlands to assist faculty and students in devel- (1992) applied Orem’s theory in her description of oping programs of nursing theory–based research. In 1986, we extended the are currently using the Self-Care Deﬁcit Nursing seminars to include nurses from all parts of Europe. The participants studied the Self- research work cited above was funded in part by Care Deﬁcit Nursing Theory, research methodol- a variety of agencies: the Netherlands Heart ogy, and the interrelatedness of theory and Foundation, the Swiss National Fund, Fulbright research. Each participant developed a self-care Scholarship, Finnish Academy of Science, and the theory-based research project that could be imple- Kellogg Foundation. To date, speciﬁc knowledge and, by means of transnational compar- propositions of the theory have been tested in nine isons, identify culture-speciﬁc knowledge. Through this theory testing program of current shared programs of research focus on: research, data are being accrued that will provide (1) inﬂuences of aging on the self-care abilities answers to the question,“To what extent is the Self- of Americans (Jirovec & Kasno, 1990), Canadians Care Deﬁcit Nursing Theory relevant to the global (Ward-Grifﬁn & Bramwell, 1990), Danes (Loren- community? In 1991, the International Orem Society for lems, such as coronary artery disease, on the self- Nursing Science and Scholarship was founded. The care abilities of Americans (Isenberg, 1987, 1993), society’s mission is to advance nursing science and Canadians (Aish & Isenberg, 1996), and Dutch scholarship through the use of Dorothea E. Orem’s clients (Isenberg, 1993; Isenberg, Evers, & Brouns, nursing conceptualizations in nursing education, 1987; Senten, Evers, Isenberg, & Philipsen, 1991). The results of her study indicated Practice that health state was the predominant predictor of women’s self-care agency and self-care perfor- In this section, we focus on the ways in which the mance (Gallegos, 1997). The level of poverty Self-Care Deﬁcit Nursing Theory is guiding nurs- experienced by the Mexican women also had a sig- ing research because the theory’s utility to nursing niﬁcant inﬂuence on their self-care performance. Since the pioneering efforts of Crews (1972) and Backscheider (1974) in the use of the Ailinger, R. Arthritis Care and Research, 6(3), theory in structuring and organizing nursing care 134–140. An examination of the self- have been proclaiming the usefulness of the theory care needs of clients with rheumatoid arthritis... Rehabilitation Nursing, 22(3), guide practice across a wide range of nursing situa- 135–140. An investigation of a nursing system to support tions in all types of care settings, ranging from nutritional self-care in post myocardial infarction patients. Effects of Orem-based to the care of patients in intensive care units nursing intervention on nutritional self-care of myocardial infarction patients. Self-care requirements, self-care capa- ages with all kinds of health-deviation self-care req- bilities and nursing systems in the diabetic nurse manage- uisites and developmental requisites. The inﬂuence of health status, burden, and degree of cognitive impairment on the self-care agency and of ambulatory adolescent transplant recipients. Unpublished Nursing services based on Orem’s theory were doctoral dissertation, Wayne State University, Detroit. Predictors of self-care in adolescents with cys- this adolescent population (Norris, 1991). Haas tic ﬁbrosis: A test and explication of Orem’s theories of self-care (1990) also reported on the usefulness of the Self- and self-care deﬁcit.
How might this knowledge help you to understand your responses to patients with different personal- ity traits? Study Guide for Fundamentals of Nursing: The Art and Science of Nursing Care buy 100 mg sildigra with visa, 7th Edition buy discount sildigra 50 mg on-line. Which of the following sources of patient data is usually the primary and best source? Smith is admitted to the hospital with patient are known as: complaints of left-sided weakness and difﬁculty a order sildigra 120mg with mastercard. Brain scan shows evidence of a clot in the nurse–patient interview does the nurse gather middle cerebral artery cheap 100mg sildigra visa. Which of the following nurse–patient ted to the hospital with complaints of positioning facilitates an easy exchange of difﬁculty urinating, bloody urine, and burning information? Focusing on altered patterns of elimination their chairs are at right angles to each common in the elderly other, 1 foot apart. If the patient is in bed, the nurse sits in a patient’s sexual history chair placed at a 45-degree angle to the bed. If the patient is in bed, the nurse stands at validate data on the patient’s record the side of the bed. Nursing assessments duplicate medical becomes very tired, but there are still questions assessments. Jones if she objects to your database for problem solving and care interviewing her husband to obtain the planning. Anderson, age 50, is admitted to your focus of Gordon’s functional health patterns unit with the diagnosis of scleroderma. Elimination, activity, sleep, and sexuality occur during the preparatory phase of the are components of the assessment and data nursing interview? The nurse assesses the patient’s comfort hands before signing a consent for surgery. A patient feels nauseated after eating his reading current and past records and reports. A patient complains of being cold and describe the unique focus of nursing requests an extra blanket. Study Guide for Fundamentals of Nursing: The Art and Science of Nursing Care, 7th Edition. When the nurse compares the current status of a patient to the initial assessment performed 1. Place the following actions performed by a during the admitting process, he/she is nurse during a patient interview in the order in performing a(n) type of which they would most likely occur. The nurse gathers all the information must be collected from every patient in a needed to form the subjective database. The nurse prepares to meet the patient by reading current and past records and reports. The nurse ensures that the environment in which the interview is to be conducted is c. The primary source of patient data is the that can be seen, heard, or felt by some- patient, but two other sources of patient data one other than the person experiencing are and. The conscious and deliberate use of the performed during the nurse’s initial contact ﬁve physical senses to gather information with the patient and involves collecting data 3. Clearly identiﬁes patient strengths and about all aspects of the patient’s health is weaknesses, health risks, and potential called the. A planned communication to obtain lected upon assessment to keep it free of error, patient data bias, or misinterpretation, he/she is performing the act of. When a nurse asks a patient how having a patient’s condition and help the nurse newborn at home will affect her lifestyle, she in planning care is asking a(n) type of a question. A nurse who gathers data about a newly diag- nosed case of hypertension in a 52-year-old 7. Compares a patient’s current status to African American patient is performing a(n) baseline data obtained earlier type of assessment. Study Guide for Fundamentals of Nursing: The Art and Science of Nursing Care, 7th Edition. Study Guide for Fundamentals of Nursing: The Art and Science of Nursing Care, 7th Edition. An 85-year-old African American man is ended questions, and reﬂective questions that admitted to the coronary care unit after could be used to elicit information from your experiencing a possible stroke. A teenage boy is admitted to the hospital children who has recently been diagnosed with severe stomach pains and a possible with diabetes; she is admitted to the hospital ruptured appendix. Closed questions: questions (closed, open-ended, reﬂective, direct) resulted in the best interviews. Recall the last time you went to a doctor’s ofﬁce for a checkup or medical problem. What would assessment priorities when collecting patient you do to incorporate this learning into your data. Patient’s developmental stage: Use the following expanded scenario from Chapter 12 in your textbook to answer the questions below. Patient’s need for nursing: Scenario: Susan Morgan is a 34-year-old woman newly diagnosed with multiple sclero- sis. Explain when the immediate communication year and planned to do lots of hiking and of data is indicated. It’s not fair for him to be tied down to me if I can’t be the wife and partner that he thought he married. A 50-year-old woman with diabetes and diabetic foot ulcers is admitted to the emer- gency room for observation after she expe- rienced a blackout. Study Guide for Fundamentals of Nursing: The Art and Science of Nursing Care, 7th Edition. What resources might be helpful for and/or ethical/legal competencies are most Ms. Study Guide for Fundamentals of Nursing: The Art and Science of Nursing Care, 7th Edition. Which of the following nursing diagnoses Circle the letter that corresponds to the best would be written when the nurse suspects that answer for each question. Nursing diagnoses are written to describe clearly the responsibility of the nurse? Tailoring treatment and medication potential health problem that can be regimens for each individual prevented or resolved by an independent d. Which of the following statements describe ate nursing diagnosis for a toddler who has the purpose of diagnosing? To identify a disease in an individual, negligence in providing a safe environment? To identify how an individual, group, or parents community responds to actual or potential b.
Heroin is a pro-drug and is converted in the liver to morphine with the same side effects buy generic sildigra 120 mg on line. Side effects include sedation buy 25 mg sildigra overnight delivery, decreased blood pressure order sildigra 100 mg mastercard, increased sweating generic sildigra 120 mg online, flushed face, constipation, dizziness, drowsiness, nausea and vomiting. This medication is commonly used in overdoses and can cause serious kidney problems and death. Aspirin abuse can cause gastric (stomach) irritation which can lead to ulcers and subsequent gastric hemorrhage (bleeding). Several of the side effects include episodes of violent and aggressive behavior, seizures, delirium, and other withdrawal reactions. Diazepam Commonly known as Valium it is used for short-term relief of anxiety symptoms. Overdose can result in somno- lence (sleepiness), confusion, diminished reflexes, and coma. Side effects and overdose can result in gastrointestinal bleeding or a metabolic acidosis. Benzodiazepines This medication can cause an alteration in thoughts, feelings, and perceptions. This medication is a mood elevator and can cause an alteration in thoughts, feelings, and perceptions. Side effects can be mild drowsiness, ataxia, behavioral disturbances that are manifested as aggression, irritability, and agitation. This is an opioid analgesic that can cause an alteration in sensory perception which includes euphoria, dizziness, drowsiness, hypotension, nausea, and vomiting. Some professionals believe a person who has a low threshold for frustration, a fear of failure, and a feeling of inadequacy are more prone to abuse drugs. Those who abuse drugs do so because they are: • Bored, • Pressured by their peers, • Seeking pleasure, • Affluent and want to experiment, • Seeking to escape from reality, • Feeling inadequate, • Feeling ashamed and depressed, • Seeking relief from conflicts. Dependence versus Tolerance There is an important difference between drug dependence and drug tolerance although sometimes these terms are used interchangeably. Drug dependence occurs when the patient has a psychological and/or physical dependence on the drug that results in withdrawal symptoms that can become unbearable for the patient to endure. Tolerance occurs when the concentration of a drug no longer has a continu- ing therapeutic effect. This happens because receptor sites in the effective tissues adapt to the prescribed level of drug. The only way to regain the therapeutic effect is to increase the concentration of the drug. This means there is a lower concentration of the drug in plasma that is distributed throughout the body. Pathophysiologic Changes Occurring in Substance Abuse Drug abusers frequently exhibit pathophysiologic changes that require treatment along with the patient’s drug addition. In addition, these patients can experience respiratory diseases such as pneu- monia, blood clots (pulmonary emboli), and abscesses. Drug abusers also incur cellulitis (infection in the tissues), sclerosis (scaring of the veins), phlebitis (irritation of veins), and skin abscesses. Drug abusers are always at risk of overdosing because the active ingredient in illegal drugs are frequently adulterated with dangerous substances such as amphet- amines, benzodiazepines, hallucinogens, and alcohol. This makes the potency of the drug unreliable and the risk of death from an accidental overdose is high. Cultural Aspects of Substance Abuse The views of drug use differ among cultures around the world. Alcohol, caffeine, and nicotine are addictive drugs that are widely accepted in the United States and elsewhere throughout the world. Cannabis, on the other hand, is illegal in the Untied States and in many other countries. Hallucinogens that affect the auditory and visual senses such as peyote are used by Native Americans as part of religious rituals. Commonly Abused Substances There are five groups of drugs that are commonly abused in the United States and in other developed countries. Heroin is a Schedule I drug (see Chapter 1) that has no accepted medical use in the United States. Inhalants are aerosols and volatile hydro- carbons such as airplane glue and paint thinner that give the drug abuser a “buzz” or feeling of euphoria. Hashish is classified as a controlled substance although it isn’t a narcotic deriv- ative. Hashish also has sedative-hypnotic, anesthetic, or psychedelic properties and is capable of altering perception, thought, and feeling. Hashish is administered orally using pipes or cigarettes and can be injected subcutaneously, however the most potent route is inhalation. Many drug abusers prefer smoking hashish through a water pipe to reduce the irritating effect of the acidic smoke. Some drug abusers grind hashish into a powder and mixed it with foods in order to delay the absorption of the drug by the body. Hashish acts to depress the central nervous system and causes mental relax- ation and euphoria that occurs within 15 minutes and lasts up to four hours. The person’s time and space per- ception is altered and causes a free flow of ideas to occur. The user may also have palpitations, loss of concentra- tion, lightheadedness, weakness, tremors, postural hypotension, ataxia (stagger- ing gait) and a sense of floating. As the dose increases, the effects of the drug progresses from relief to dis-inhibition, excitement, and anesthesia. These include ethyl alcohol, barbi- turates, amphetamines, cocaine, opiates, and atropine. The person may have intermittent craving for a few months, which is best treated by exercise. These drugs alter the mind and change a person’s perception of time, reality, and the environment. Hallucinogens disrupt the normal activity of serotonin, which is a neurotransmitter that sends signals throughout the brain. Hallucinogens cause abnormal activation of serotonin in the part of the brain responsible for coordinating and processing hearing and sight. The result is that people taking hallucinogens hear voices and see images that don’t exist. Researchers are unsure if hallucinogens permanently alter the brain’s chem- istry, however, some patient’s who have taken hallucinogens experience chronic mental disorders. This results in a stage of exhaustion and feeling of emptiness where the person is unable to coordinate thoughts. If this approach fails, drug therapy is employed using a benzodiazepine such as diazepam (Valium).
For example buy generic sildigra 25mg online, there are at least 250 000 species of higher plants that exist on this planet buy cheap sildigra 100 mg on line, but merely ﬁve to 10 per cent of these terrestrial plants have been investigated so far buy sildigra 50mg otc. In addition purchase sildigra 50mg without a prescription, re-investigation of previously investigated plants has continued to produce new bioactive compounds that have the potential for being developed as drugs. While several biologically active compounds have been found in marine organisms, e. Natural product drug discovery: the traditional way In the traditional, rather more academic, method of drug discovery from natural products, drug targets are exposed to crude extracts, and in the case of a hit, i. Every step of fractionation and isolation is usually guided by bioassays, and the process is called bioassay-guided isolation. The following scheme presents an overview of a bioassay-guided traditional natural product drug discovery process. Sometimes, a straightforward natural product isolation route, irrespective of bioactivity, is also applied, which results in the isolation of a number of natural compounds (small compound library) suitable for undergoing any bioactivity screening. However, the process can be slow, inefﬁcient and labour intensive, and it does not guarantee that a ‘lead’ from screening would be chemically workable or even patentable. Dereplication is the process by which one can eliminate recurrence or re-isolation of same or similar compounds from various extracts. While in the recent past it was extremely difﬁcult, time consuming and labour intensive to build such a library from puriﬁed natural products, with the advent of newer and improved technologies related to separation, isolation and identiﬁcation of natural products the situation has improved remarkably. Natural product libraries can also be of crude extracts, chromatographic fractions or semi-puriﬁed compounds. However, the best result can be obtained from a fully identiﬁed pure natural product library as it provides scientists with the opportunity to handle the ‘lead’ rapidly for further developmental work, e. These approaches include the application of genomic tools, seeking novel sources of organisms from the environment, new screening technologies and improved processes of sample preparation for screening samples. In addi- tion, the recent focus on the synthesis of diversity-oriented combinatorial libraries based on natural-product-like compounds is an attempt to enhance the productivity of synthetic chemical libraries. The name ‘alkaloid’ derives from the word ‘alkaline’, which means a water soluble base. A number of natural alkaloids and their derivatives have been developed as drugs to treat various diseases, e. In fact, one or more nitrogen atoms that are present in an alkaloid, typically as 1 ,2 or 3 amines, contribute to the basicity of the alkaloid. The degree of basicity varies considerably, depending on the structure of the molecule, and presence and location of the functional groups. However, alkaloids can also be grouped together on the basis of their generic structural similarities. The following table shows different major types of alkaloid, their generic skeletons and speciﬁc examples. Piperine has various effects on human drug metabolizing enzymes, and is marketed under the brand name, 1 Bioperine , as an adjunct for increasing bioavailability of various dietary supplements, especially curcumin, one of the active ingredients of turmeric (Curcuma longa). It is a neurotoxin, causes respiratory paralysis and is toxic to all classes of livestock and humans. Nicotine Nicotine, molecular formula C10H14N2, is the major pharmacolo- gically active component of tobacco, Nicotiana tabacum, and is also found extensively in other species of the family Solanaceae, e. Nicotine is a hygroscopic oily liquid, and miscible with water in its base as well as its salt form. Nicotine possesses two nitrogenous ring systems: one is pyridine, but the other is a pyrrolidine ring system. Nicotine is a potent nerve poison, and is included in many insecticide preparations. The main symptoms of the withdrawal of nicotine intake include irritability, headaches, anxiety, cognitive disturbances and sleep disruption. Pyrrole and pyrrolidine alkaloids These alkaloids contain pyrrole or modiﬁed pyrrole, e. A pyrrolidine ring is the central structure of the amino acids proline and hydroxyproline. Cuscohygrine Cuscohygrine, molecular formula C13H24N2O, is a dimeric pyrrolidine alkaloid found in coca, and also in many species of the Solanaceae. Tropane alkaloids These are the group of alkaloids that possess a 8-methyl-8-aza-bicyclo [1,2,3]octane or tropane skeleton, e. Tropane alkaloids occur mainly in plants from the families Solanaceae and Erythroxylaceae. However, most of the pharmacological properties of atropine are due to its L-isomer, and due to its binding to muscarinic acetylcholine receptors. Atropine is used as an acycloplegic to paralyse accommodation tempora- rily, and as a mydriatic to dilate the pupils. It is also used as an antidote for poisoning by organophosphate insecticides and nerve gases. The major adverse effects of atropine include ventricular ﬁbrillation, tachycardia, nausea, blurred vision, loss of balance and photophobia. For its euphoretic effect, cocaine is often used recreationally, and it is one of the most common drugs of abuse and addiction. Possession, cultivation and distribution of cocaine is illegal for non-medicinal and non-government sanctioned purposes virtually all over the world. The side-effects of cocaine include twitching, paranoia and impotence, which usually increase with frequent usage. With excessive dosage it produces halluci- nations, paranoid delusions, tachycardia, itching and formication. Cocaine overdose leads to tachyarrhythmias and elevated blood pressure, and can be fatal. Quinoline alkaloids The chemistry of the quinoline heterocycle has already been discussed in Chapter 4. Quinoline itself is a colourless hygroscopic liquid with strong odour, and slightly soluble in water, but readily miscible with organic solvents. Short term exposure to the vapour of quinoline causes irritation of the nose, eyes, and throat, dizziness and nausea. Quinine is extremely bitter, and also possesses antipyretic, analgesic and anti-inﬂammatory properties. While quinine is still the drug of choice for the treatment of Falciparum malaria, it can be also used to treat nocturnal leg cramps and arthritis. Despite being a wonder drug against malaria, quinine in therapeutic doses can cause various side-effects, e. Non-medicinal uses of quinine include its uses as a ﬂavouring agent in tonic water and bitter lemon.
Nature buy sildigra 100mg low price, nurture discount sildigra 25 mg amex, and cognitive development from 1 to 16 years: A parent-offspring adoption study buy generic sildigra 120mg on line. This column represents the pure effects of genetics discount 100mg sildigra with visa, in the sense that environmental differences have been controlled to be a small as possible. You can also see from the table that, overall, there is more influence of nature than of parents. Identical twins, even when they are raised in separate households by different parents (column 4), turn out to be quite similar in personality, and are more similar than fraternal twins who are raised in separate households (column 5). These results show that genetics has a strong influence on personality, and helps explain why Elyse and Paula were so similar when they finally met. For instance, for sexual orientation the estimates of heritability vary from 18% to 39% of the total across studies, suggesting that 61% to 82% of the total influence is due to environment. You might at first think that parents would have a strong influence on the personalities of their children, but this would be incorrect. Shared environment does influence the personality and behavior of young children, but this influence decreases rapidly as the child grows older. By the time we reach adulthood, the impact of shared environment on our  personalities is weak at best (Roberts & DelVecchio, 2000). What this means is that, although parents must provide a nourishing and stimulating environment for children, no matter how hard they try they are not likely to be able to turn their children into geniuses or into professional athletes, nor will they be able to turn them into criminals. If parents are not providing the environmental influences on the child, then what is? You can see that these factors—the largely unknown things that happen to us that make us different from other people—often have the largest influence on personality. Studying Personality Using Molecular Genetics In addition to the use of behavioral genetics, our understanding of the role of biology in personality recently has been dramatically increased through the use of molecular genetics, which is the study of which genes are associated with which personality traits (Goldsmith et al. Molecular genetics researchers have also developed new techniques that allow them to find the locations of genes within chromosomes and to identify the effects those genes have when activated or deactivated. In this approach the researchers use specialized techniques to remove or modify the influence of a  gene in a line of “knockout‖ mice (Crusio, Goldowitz, Holmes, & Wolfer, 2009). When these animals are born, they are studied to see whether their behavior differs from a control group of normal animals. Research has found that removing or changing genes in mice can affect their anxiety, aggression, learning, and socialization patterns. Research using molecular genetics has found genes associated with a variety of personality traits including novelty-seeking (Ekelund, Lichtermann, Järvelin, & Peltonen,   1999), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (Waldman & Gizer, 2006), and smoking  behavior (Thorgeirsson et al. Over the past two decades scientists have made substantial progress in understanding the important role of genetics in behavior. Behavioral genetics studies have found that, for most Attributed to Charles Stangor Saylor. And molecular genetics studies have begun to pinpoint the particular genes that are causing these differences. The results of these studies might lead you to believe that your destiny is determined by your genes, but this would be a mistaken assumption. Over time we will learn even more about the role of genetics, and our conclusions about its influence will likely change. Current research in the area of behavioral genetics is often criticized for making assumptions about how researchers categorize identical and fraternal twins, about whether twins are in fact treated in the same way by their parents, about whether twins are representative of children more generally, and about many other issues. Although these critiques may not change the overall conclusions, it must be kept in mind that these findings are relatively new and will certainly be  updated with time (Plomin, 2000). Furthermore, it is important to reiterate that although genetics is important, and although we are learning more every day about its role in many personality variables, genetics does not determine everything. In fact, the major influence on personality is nonshared environmental influences, which include all the things that occur to us that make us unique individuals. These differences include variability in brain structure, nutrition, education, upbringing, and even interactions among the genes themselves. The genetic differences that exist at birth may be either amplified or diminished over time through environmental factors. The brains and bodies of identical twins are not exactly the same, and they become even more different as they grow up. As a result, even genetically identical twins have distinct personalities, resulting in large part from environmental effects. Because these nonshared environmental differences are nonsystematic and largely accidental or random, it will be difficult to ever determine exactly what will happen to a child as he or she grows up. Although we do inherit our genes, we do not inherit personality in any fixed sense. The effect of our genes on our behavior is entirely dependent upon the context of our life as it Attributed to Charles Stangor Saylor. Based on your genes, no one can say what kind of human being you will turn out to be or what you will do in life. Because these differences are nonsystematic and largely accidental or random, we do not inherit our personality in any fixed sense. Do they seem to be very similar to each other, or does it seem that their differences outweigh their similarities? What does it mean to say that genetics “determines” or “does not determine” our personality? Behavioral genetics: An introduction to how genes and environments interact through development to shape differences in mood, personality, and intelligence. Sources of human psychological differences: The Minnesota study of twins reared apart. The rank-order consistency of personality traits from childhood to old age: A quantitative review of longitudinal studies. Association between novelty seeking and the type 4 dopamine receptor gene in a large Finnish cohort sample. A variant associated with nicotine dependence, lung cancer and peripheral arterial disease. Early theories of personality, including phrenology and somatology, are now discredited, but there is at least some research evidence for physiognomy—the idea that it is possible to assess personality from facial characteristics. Personalities are characterized in terms of traits, which are relatively enduring characteristics that influence our behavior across many situations. Psychologists have investigated hundreds of traits using the self-report approach. The trait approach to personality was pioneered by early psychologists, including Allport, Cattell, and Eysenck, and their research helped produce the Five-Factor (Big Five) Model of Personality. The Big Five dimensions are cross-culturally valid and accurately predict behavior. The Big Five factors are also increasingly being used to help researchers understand the dimensions of psychological disorders. A difficulty of the trait approach to personality is that there is often only a low correlation between the traits that a person expresses in one situation and those that he or she expresses in other situations.