By C. Koraz. Oklahoma Christian University. 2019.
It is a rich natural source of L- dopamine buy tadalis sx 20mg visa, but other components also contribute to its medicinal actions tadalis sx 20mg otc. The researchers felt that the velvet bean might possess advantages over conventional L- dopa preparations discount tadalis sx 20mg visa. Fava Bean L-dopamine was also found in the fava or broad bean (Vicia faba) in 1913 order 20 mg tadalis sx. Since then, anecdotal cases of symptomatic improvement after broad bean consumption have been described in patients with Parkinson’s disease. In one small clinical study, 250 g cooked broad beans produced a substantial increase in L-dopamine blood levels, which correlated with a signiﬁcant improvement in motor performance. Dietary Recommendations Follow the guidelines in the chapter “A Health-Promoting Diet,” along with the following recommendations: • Eat a diet that is high in ﬁber, speciﬁcally from legumes and vegetables, and low in animal products. They should take their medication with a high- carbohydrate meal and delay protein intake until the ﬁnal meal of the day in an effort to optimize the medication’s therapeutic efficacy. When it occurs in the stomach it is called a gastric ulcer; when it occurs in the ﬁrst portion of the small intestine, it is called a duodenal ulcer. Duodenal ulcers are more common, occurring in an estimated 6 to 12% of the adult population in the United States. Duodenal ulcers are four times more common in men than in women, and four to five times more common than gastric ulcers. Although symptoms of a peptic ulcer may be absent or quite vague, most peptic ulcers are associated with abdominal discomfort noted 45 to 60 minutes after meals or during the night. In the typical case, the pain is described as gnawing, burning, cramp-like, or aching, or as “heartburn. Causes Even though duodenal and gastric ulcers occur at different locations, they appear to be the result of similar mechanisms: damage to the protective factors that line the stomach and duodenum. Gastric acid is extremely corrosive (pH 1 to 3), and though it is very effective at digesting food, it would eat right through the skin or mucous membrane. To protect against ulcers, the lining of the stomach and small intestine has a layer of slippery mucus called mucin. Other protective factors include the constant renewal of intestinal cells and the secretion of factors that neutralize the acid when it comes into contact with the lining of the stomach and intestine. Contrary to popular opinion, excessive secretion of gastric acid output is rarely a factor in the development of gastric ulcers. In fact, patients who have gastric ulcers tend to secrete normal or even reduced levels of gastric acid. In duodenal ulcer patients, however, almost half have increased gastric acid output. This increase may be due to an increased number of acid-producing cells, known as parietal cells. As a group, patients with duodenal ulcers have twice as many parietal cells in their stomach as people without ulcers. Even with an increase in gastric acid output, under normal circumstances there are enough protective factors to prevent either gastric or duodenal ulcer formation. However, when the integrity of these protective factors is impaired, an ulcer can form. It has been shown that 90 to 100% of patients with duodenal ulcers, 70% with gastric ulcers, and about 50% of people over the age of 50 test positive for this bacterium. Helicobacter pylori infection increases gastric pH, thereby setting up a positive-feedback scenario. Aspirin and Other Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs Use of aspirin and other nonsteroidal anti-inﬂammatory drugs is associated with a signiﬁcant risk of peptic ulcer. However, the dosage of 75 mg per day was associated with 40% less bleeding than 300 mg per day and 30% less bleeding than 150 mg per day. The researchers concluded: “No conventionally used prophylactic aspirin regimen seems free of the risk of peptic ulcer complications. One of the big problems is that studies attempting to examine this assumption about stress and ulcers have been poorly designed. Several studies have shown that the number of stressful life events is not signiﬁcantly different in peptic ulcer patients compared with carefully selected, ulcer-free controls. As a group, ulcer patients have been characterized as tending to repress emotions. At the very least, we encourage our patients with ulcers to discover enjoyable outlets of self-expression as well as to develop effective stress management in their lives. Smoking Smoking is a signiﬁcant factor in the occurrence and severity of peptic ulcers. Increased frequency of occurrence, decreased response to peptic ulcer therapy, and an increased mortality due to peptic ulcers are all related to smoking. First of all, smoking increases the backﬂow (reﬂux) of bile salts into the stomach. Bile salts are extremely irritating to the stomach and initial portions of the duodenum. Bile salt reﬂux induced by smoking appears to be the primary reason for the increased peptic ulcer rate in smokers. Smoking also decreases the secretion of bicarbonate (an important neutralizer of gastric acid) by the pancreas and accelerates the passage of food from the stomach into the duodenum, thus not allowing the acid enough time to interact with food. Food Allergies Clinical and experimental evidence points to food allergy as a primary factor in many cases of peptic ulcer. However, population studies offer additional evidence that increased milk consumption leads to a greater likelihood of ulcer. Complications such as hemorrhage, perforation, and obstruction represent medical emergencies that require immediate hospitalization. Obviously, the best treatment of a peptic ulcer involves identification of the causative factor and its appropriate elimination. Diet Fiber A diet rich in ﬁber and low in reﬁned sugar is associated with a reduced rate of duodenal ulcers as compared with a low-ﬁber diet. The therapeutic use of a high-ﬁber diet or soluble ﬁber supplement in patients with recently healed duodenal ulcers reduces the recurrence rate by half. Further research has shown that the high glutamine content of the juice is probably responsible for its efﬁcacy in treating ulcers. Half of the patients using glutamine showed complete healing (according to radiographic analysis) within two weeks, and 22 of the 24 showed complete relief and healing within four weeks. In addition, isothiocyanates such as sulforaphane, from vegetables in the brassica family, have shown considerable activity against H. Values returned to their original levels two months after treatment was discontinued.
Schindler cheap tadalis sx 20 mg with amex, of the famous Monroe Clinic order 20mg tadalis sx free shipping, Monroe buy cheap tadalis sx 20 mg online, Wisconsin cheap 20mg tadalis sx overnight delivery, won nation-wide fame for his outstanding success in helping unhappy, neurotic people regain the joy of living and return to productive, happy lives. One of the keys to his method of treatment was what he called "conscious thought control. Regard- less of the omissions and commissions of the past," he said, "a person has to start in the present to acquire some maturity so that the future may be better than the past. The present and the future depend on learning new habits and new ways of looking at old problems. This common denominator is that the patient has forgotten how, or probably never learned how, to control his present thinking to produce enjoyment. As we have pointed out earlier, all skill learning is accom- plished by trial and error, by making a trial, missing the mark, consciously remembering the degree of error, and making correction on the next trial—until finally a "hit," or successful attempt is accomplished. The successful re- action pattern is then remembered, or recalled, and "imi- tated" on future trials. This is true for a man learning to pitch horseshoes, throw darts, sing, drive a car, play golf, get along socially with other human beings, or any other skill. Thus, all servo-mechanisms, by their very nature contain "memories" of past errors, failures, pain- ful and negative experiences. These negative experiences do not inhibit, but contribute to the learning process, as long as they are used properly as "negative feedback data," and are seen as deviations from the positive goal which is desired. However, as soon as the error has been recognized as such, and correction of course made, it is equally impor- tant that the error be consciously forgotten, and the suc- cessful attempt remembered and "dwelt upon. Our errors, mistakes, failures, and sometimes even our humiliations, were necessary steps in the learning process. If we consciously dwell upon the error, or consciously feel guilty about the error, and keep berating ourselves because of it, then—unwit- tingly—the error or failure itself becomes the "goal" which is consciously held in imagination and memory. The un- happiest of mortals is that man who insists upon reliving the past, over and over in imagination—continually criti- cising himself for past mistakes—continually condemning himself for past sins. I shall never forget one of my women patients who tor- tured herself with her unhappy past, so much so that she destroyed any chance for happiness in the present. She had lived for years in bitterness and resentment, as a direct re- sult of a serious harelip that caused her to shun people, and to develop over the years a personality that was stunted, crabby, and completely turned against the world and everything in it. She had no friends because she imag- ined that no one would be friendly with a person who looked so "awful. She tried to make the adjustment and to begin living with people in harmony and friendliness, but found that her past experiences kept getting in the way. She felt that, despite her new appearance, she could not make friends and be happy because no one would forgive her for what she had been before the operation. She wound up making the same mistakes she had made before and was as un- happy as ever. She did not really begin to live until she learned to stop condemning herself for what she had been in the past and to stop reliving in her imagination all the unhappy events that had brought her to my office for surgery. Continually criticising yourself for past mistakes and errors does not help matters, but on the other hand tends to perpetuate the very behavior you would change. Memories of past failures can adversely affect present per- formance, if we dwell upon them and foolishly conclude —"I failed yesterday—therefore it follows that I will fail again today. If we are victimized, it is by our con- scious, thinking mind and not by the "unconscious. The minute that we change our minds, and stop giving power to the past, the past with its mis- takes loses power over us. Ignore Past Failures and Forge Ahead Here again, hypnosis furnishes convincing proof. When a shy, timid wallflower is told in hypnosis, and believes or "thinks" that he is a bold, self-confident orator, his re- action patterns are changed instantly. His attention is given over com- pletely to the positive desired goal—and no thought or consideration whatsoever is given to past failures. Dorothea Brande tells in her charming book, Wake Up and Live, how this one idea enabled her to become more productive and successful as a writer, and to draw upon talents and abilities she never knew she had. She had been both curious and amazed after witnessing a demonstration in hypnosis. The sentence by Myers explained that the talents and abilities displayed by hypnotic- sub- jects were due to a "purgation of memory" of past fail- ures, while in the hypnotic state. A rather surprising result was that she discovered a talent for public speaking, be- came much in demand as a lecturer—and enjoyed it, whereas previously she had not only shown no talent for lecturing, but disliked it intensely. Now, on the contrary, I enjoy life; I might almost say that with every year that passes I enjoy it more. Like others who had a Puritan education, I had a habit of meditating on my sins, follies, and shortcomings. Gradually I learned to be indifferent to myself and my deficiencies; I came to center my attention upon external objects: the state of the world, various branches of knowledge, indi- viduals for whom I felt affection. Whenever you begin to feel remorse for an act which your reason tells you is not wicked, examine the causes of your feeling of remorse, and convince yourself in detail of their absurdity. Let your conscious beliefs be so vivid and em- phatic that they make an impression upon your uncon- scious strong enough to cope with the impressions made by your nurse or your mother when you were an infant. Do not be content with an alteration between moments of rationality and moments of irrationality. Look into the irrationality closely with a determination not to respect it and not to let it dominate you. When it thrusts foolish thoughts or feelings into your consciousness, pull them up by the roots, examine them, and reject them. Do not allow yourself to remain a vacillating creature, swayed half by reason and half by infantile folly... When a rational conviction has been arrived at, it is necessary to dwell upon it, to follow out its consequences, to search out in oneself whatever beliefs inconsistent with the new conviction might otherwise survive. What I suggest is that a man should make up his mind with emphasis as to what he rationally believes, and should never allow con- trary irrational beliefs to pass unchallenged or obtain a hold over him, however brief. This is a question of reason- ing with himself in those moments in which he is tempted to become infantile, but the reasoning, if it is sufficiently emphatic, may be very brief. Lecky believed that it was inherent in the very nature of "mind" itself, that all ideas and concepts which make up the total content of "personality" must seem to be consistent with each other. If the inconsistency of a given idea is consciously recog- nized, it must be rejected. One of my patients was a salesman who was "scared to death" when calling upon "big shots. These are (1) the feeling or belief that one is capable of doing his share, holding up his end of the log, exerting a certain amount of independence and (2) the belief that there is "something" inside you which should not be allowed to suffer indignities. Examine and Re-evaluate Your Beliefs One of the reasons that the power of rational thinking goes unrecognized is that it is so seldom used. Trace down the belief about yourself, or the belief about the world, or other people, which is behind your negative behavior. Does "something always happen" to cause you to miss out just when success seems within your grasp? Perhaps you believe you are inferior to them, or that other people per se are hostile and unfriendly.
Studies involv- cally affected Crimson Finches discount tadalis sx 20mg with amex, Red-faced Waxbills and Zebra Finches purchase tadalis sx 20 mg mastercard. There may also be Clinical Disease and Pathology diphtheroid changes in the mucosa of the esophagus purchase 20mg tadalis sx with amex, Listless birds with ruffled plumage develop increas- choana and larynx buy generic tadalis sx 20mg online. Swollen and edematous eyelids and con- junctivae may be sealed with crusts in the lid cleft. Death is common five to ten days following the first clinical signs and all Gouldian Finches from one aviary died over a period of two weeks. Swollen eyelids and conjunctivae, serous discharge in the conjunctival sacs and fibrinoid thickening of the air sacs were the only characteristic findings. In one outbreak, hyperemic foci and fibrinous depos- its were visible on the serosa of the jejunum, the lumen of which was filled with melena-like contents in one bird. The bird also Histopathology is characterized by ballooning degen- had proliferative (wart-like) growths on several digits. Electron eration and detachment from the basal membrane of microscopy revealed virus particles suggestive of herpesvirus. Large, homogeneous, either ba- sophilic or eosinophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies Papovaviridae are characteristic. The submucosa may be congested and contain massive diffuse perivascular infiltration with mononuclear cells and few heterophils. The lower respiratory tract and the trachea may have The Papovaviridae family of viruses consists of two similar but less severe lesions. Cilia may be damaged genera, which vary in virion size, genome size and in affected tracheal mucosa. Affected birds are usually clini- with the formation of benign skin tumors cally normal except for the wart-like growths on their 190,298 (warts). Histopathology is consistent with squamous associated with a polyomavirus was described in papillomas. Elec- been shown to be associated with high levels of mor- tron microscopy has been used to demonstrate virus bidity and mortality in finches (Estrildidae) and in a particles suggestive of herpesvirus. The rus was observed by electron microscopy in associa- acute nature of avian polyomavirus infections ismost tion with a cloacal papilloma in an Orange-fronted unusual for Papovaviridae, the members of which are Conure. Papillomavirus has been associated with prolifera- tive growths on the unfeathered skin of some birds. In addition, clinical and pathologic lesions suggestive of those caused by papillomavirus have been de- scribed at various locations along the gastrointesti- nal tract, particularly in the cloaca (see Color 19). To date, no virus has been associated with these papil- loma-like growths in the gastrointestinal tract of Psittaciformes. The bird was on a marginal diet acterization of a papillomavirus from proliferative and had numerous rhamphothecal and gnathecal defects. Histopathology indicated long, skin masses found on the legs of finches in the family thin folds of hyperplastic epidermis with acanthosis. Virus recovered from these birds was was considered suggestive of a papilloma; however, virus could not found to be antigenically similar to some types of be identified histologically. Papil- lomavirus was found to be common in finches, caus- Histologic lesions suggestive of papillomas have been ing proliferative lesions on 330 of 25,000 Chaffinches described at numerous locations along the avian gas- examined. Severe involving 19 species of New World parrots, papil- proliferations can result in the loss of digits or the lomatous lesions were documented in decreasing fre- foot. A papillomavirus was demonstrated in a Timneh Lesions are commonly reported in Hawk-headed African Grey Parrot with proliferative skin lesions on Parrots and Green-winged Macaws, but have also the head and palpebrae. Histologic evaluation of bi- been described in other macaws, African Grey Par- opsies from this bird indicated long, thin folds of rots, Amazona spp. In other birds, intestinal papillomas mechanically in- Papillomatous lesions have been diagnosed histologi- terfere with normal physiologic activities (Table cally from proliferative growths originating from 32. Cloacal papillomas may cause or mimic recur- skin overlying the phalanges, uropygial gland, man- rent prolapses. Droppings may be loose, causing dible, neck, wing, eyelids and beak commissure from feathers around the vent to be stained or covered various Psittaciformes including Amazon parrots, Af- with fecal material. In chronic cases, melena may be rican Grey Parrots, Quaker Parakeets, cockatiels noted. While a viral etiol- lesions, some birds with cloacal papillomas are able ogy has been assumed for these epidermal prolifera- to breed normally while others may not be able to tions, virus has not been demonstrated in association copulate. Histologic examination is necessary to confirm a diagnosis in any suspect lesions. Excrement was cells on a fibrovascular stalk are sug- accumulated on the pericloacal feathers. The area was coated with five percent acetic acid, and the large mass numerous projections covered by a along with several smaller raised lesions on the mucosa turned white. The mass was or a non-keratinized columnar epi- removed with staged cauterization using silver nitrate. The stroma may show some Grossly, papillomatous lesions may appear as large, inflammatory cells. Mitotic figures may be present in distinct masses or may occur as numerous small, the basal cells or upper layers of hyperplastic epithe- raised lesions covering the mucosa (Figure 32. Acetic acid (5%) will turn papillomatous tissue The differential diagnoses for papillomatosis should white, helping to identify suspect lesions. Suspicious lesions in the oral or cloa- the tumorous forms of avian pox (skin or oral mu- cal cavity can be viewed directly. Suggested therapeutic measures for cloacal papil- lomas have been based on the physical removal of the Attempts to demonstrate papillomavirus in suspect masses through cryotherapy, radiocautery or surgi- lesions by electron microscopy, low stringency south- cal excision. These procedures have been performed ern blotting techniques or immunocytochemical pro- alone or in combination with the use of autogenous cedures have all failed. None of the proposed therapies is consis- Amazon parrots, macaws and cockatoos using ho- tently effective, and papillomatous tissue often re- curs. It is suspected that papillomatous lesions from the cloaca (see Color strains from Passeriformes are also different. The proce- clinically healthy broiler chickens in Central Europe dure is repeated at two-week intervals until the le- that were also infected with infectious bursal disease sions have been removed. The role that this immunosuppressive virus played in the pathogenesis of the polyomavirus infec- Epizootiologic evidence has been used to suggest that tion was undetermined. Transmission Mutual preening and sexual contact have been sug- The epizootiology of polyomavirus infections is not gested as methods of transmission. The factors involved in the dura- investigations suggest that the disease is not infec- tion and induction of viral shedding remain unre- tious (Clubb, S unpublished). Some asymptomatic adults produce persist- aviaries have had epizootic outbreaks of the disease ently infected young, while others have neonates following the introduction of a clinically positive that intermittently may develop clinical signs and bird. It has been suggested that persistently infected this disease is available, it is prudent to isolate birds birds may be immunotolerant as a result of being with lesions from the remainder of a collection.
Clinical signs may triculus is large tadalis sx 20mg low price, which makes it easy to remove be absent or include emaciation order 20 mg tadalis sx with mastercard, anemia and mortal- foreign bodies from the ventriculus through a ity tadalis sx 20 mg fast delivery. Treatment proventriculus is large and spindle-shaped tadalis sx 20 mg mastercard, and the can be attempted with levamisole (20 mg/kg orally, or ventriculus is slightly larger and more lightly mus- 10 mg/kg parenterally) or ivermectin (200 µg/kg par- cled than that of the ostrich. It should be stressed that experience with ivermectin in many avian species is absent. Acute death has been reported after the use of ivermectin in some mammalian and reptilian species. The descriptive term myenteric ganglioneuritis and encephalo- myelitis of Psittaciformes best defines the following histologic lesions that can be observed in affected animals: lymphocytic and monocytic infiltration of intrinsic and extrinsic splanchnic nerves of the muscularis tunics of the alimentary tract; in some cases, leiomyositis in or- gans innervated by affected nerves and non-suppura- tive encephalitis, myelitis and radiculoneuritis have been described. In advanced cases, proventricular dilata- tion can be visualized on abdominal radiographs, with or without contrast media (Figure 19. Note Proventricular dilatation disease the numerous filling defects (ingesta and undigested seeds) in the crop, proventriculus and intestines. The client chose to have the Proventricular dilatation syndrome bird euthanatized. Histopathology confirmed a diagnosis of Macaw fading syndrome neuropathic gastric dilatation. Vitamin E and selenium deficiencies Gastric Impaction and Gastric Foreign Bodies Gastric impaction is common in psittacine babies can be confirmed by histologic identification of char- that consume bedding material such as crushed wal- acteristic lesions in the splanchnic nerves from a nut shell, ground corncob, shredded paper pulp, sty- ventricular biopsy (Figure 19. Affected of intranuclear and intracytoplasmic inclusion bod- 26,63,84,123 animals were emaciated and had empty intestinal ies in affected tissue of some birds. Those fed late in the including supportive care, a liquid diet, vitamin sup- day are less likely to retain their casting. It has been suggested that In ostriches, (pro)ventricular impaction is a serious birds can survive on a liquid diet,78 but no case re- 209 management problem. Most affected birds are under six months of age, caution, given that the disease may be caused by an but the condition can also occur in adults. Cloacal pro- It has been suggested that a virus may induce an lapse may occur in young birds several days to four autoimmune reaction that would be responsible for 67 weeks old. The inciting virus tion and radiographs followed by immediate surgical would no longer be present when the disease became correction are imperative for successful resolu- clinically obvious or was diagnosed at necropsy. Contrast studies indicated a delayed gastric-emptying time, hepatomegaly (causing the proventriculus to be displaced dorsally) and retention of barium in the proventriculus, suggestive of mucosal inflammation. Barium contrast radiographs were used to confirm that the string of beads passed into the small intestines. Gastritis, Heavy Metal Poisoning Radiographs indicated that the ventriculus was full of metallic densities. Because the wire was composed of a ferrous metal, a) the foreign bodies were removed by repeatedly inserting Ingestion of metallic foreign bod- a red rubber feeding catheter equipped with several neodymium-ferro-borium alloy magnets ies is relatively common in Galli- (arrows). Paralysis of the intestinal tract Foreign body penetration of the ventricular wall from nerve damage may occur secondary to lead causes a decrease in ventricular contraction and an poisoning. In Anseriformes, this is clinically recog- insufficient digestion of food, which may be recog- nized as esophageal and proventricular dilatation. In nized clinically by the passage of undigested seeds in the other orders, ingestion of ferrous metal objects, the feces. In the racing pigeon, passing undigested such as nails, wire, hairpins and needles, account for seed is considered pathognomonic for a traumatic the majority of cases. Noninvasive treatments for removal of gastric metal Ingestion of ferrous objects may cause perforation of foreign bodies should be attempted before (pro)ven- the ventriculus (majority of cases) or proventriculus, triculotomy. Ferrous metals may be removed from leading to an acute, generalized, purulent peritonitis the (pro)ventriculus using a powerful magnet of neo- or to a local peritonitis with abscess formation on the dymium-ferro-borium alloy (The Magnet Store 1- serosal surface of the (pro)ventriculus or duodenum. The size of the polyvinyl probe and 200 mmHg, which can easily force sharp objects magnetic disk can be varied according to the size of through the tough muscular wall. A probe with a length of two meters, a tration of a large (hepatic) artery or vein can result diameter of 18 mm and an attached cylinder magnet in fatal hemorrhage. In some rare cases, the ferrous of 17 x 70 mm (derived from a bovine cage magnet) foreign body will be resorbed by the inflammatory has been used to remove thirteen large staples from reaction without permanent deleterious effects. Myoventricular Dysgenesis Proventricular dilatation secondary to ventricular abnormalities caused by feeding finely ground food low in fiber is commonly observed as an in- cidental finding in chickens. The ventriculus in affected birds is poorly developed, and there is no sharp demarcation between the proventriculus and ventriculus. Vitamin E and Selenium Deficiencies Vitamin E and selenium deficiencies may cause de- generative lesions in the smooth muscle of the ven- triculus of domestic and free-ranging Anserifor- mes. Many affected animals are “high strung” or in what could be called stressful environments (Fig- ure 19. High dietary levels of certain types of fish meal or finely ground, low-fiber diets can cause erosions and ulcers in the koilin layer of gallinaceous birds. Contrast radiographs indicated mucosal fill- Copper Poisoning ing defects in the proventriculus. The marked thickening Histopathology indicated marked myocardial degeneration and and folding may have a wart-like appearance. Gross lesions in the (pro)ventriculus may be presence or absence of active bleeding from the ulcer- subtle, and histologic examination is needed to differ- ated tumor. Clinical signs may include weight loss, entiate tumors from other causes of ulceration or vomiting, passing of whole seeds in the feces, regen- hypertrophy. Al- (Alcian blue and periodic acid Schiff) facilitates dif- though hypoproteinemia may occur, the albu- ferentiation between tumors of proventricular and ventricular origin. Death usu- (pro)ventricular tumors have been published, but it ally ensues when massive gastric bleeding occurs has been suggested that early diagnosis and surgical following erosion of a major vessel. Rhamphotheca P P P P P Oropharynx P G,P P G G G,P Esophagus G G G,P G,P,O Crop G P G,P Proventriculus G,P,O G P G Ventriculus G,P,O G G G G P G Intestines G,P G,P G G,P G G G Rectum O G Cloaca G,P,O P P P Pancreas G G G Squamous cell carcinomas are the most common tumor in the oral cavity of Galliformes. Oropharyngeal tumors may be painful, ulcerative and infiltrative but rarely metastasize. Clinical signs may include dysphagia, regurgitation, vomiting, diarrhea, tenesmus and cloacal prolapse. Prognosis depends on the location of the tumor, the degree of tissue infiltration and the occurence of metastasis. Many connective tissue tumors in gallinaceous birds may be caused by the leucosis sarcoma group of viral infections. Intestinal tumors must be differentiated from metastatic oviductal or ovarian tumors by demonstrating that no primary tumors of these organs exist and that the tumor originates from intestinal mucosal epithelium or glands, rather than growing inward from the serosal surface. In the emu and cassowary, a yolk sac can be palpated for at least one week, but it should be reduced in size. It should be noted that at hatching, the liver of some birds is a bright yellow color due to Anatomy and Physiology101 absorption of pigments from the yolk sac (see Color 30). The liver gradually changes to the mahogany In the majority of avian species, the duodenum is a color of the adult between eight and fourteen days of narrow, U-shaped organ that originates from the age in gallinaceous birds.